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MESS-based things for Gameinit.dat
#352379 - 04/03/16 12:56 PM

I have on my site a bunch of incomplete MESS information, however I do not have time to finish it, so most of it is getting deleted.

Before I do though, I'd like to give you info on how to start various systems, assuming you want it, so that you can add it to your new gameinit.dat. Some of it is how to play the game, so may not fit into what you are doing.

I'll paste it all below (there's a lot of it).

MAME Snapper
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Re: MESS-based things for Gameinit.dat new [Re: Robbbert]
#352380 - 04/03/16 01:11 PM

Very interesting! Paste as well...

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MESS-based things for Gameinit.dat pt 1 new [Re: Robbbert]
#352381 - 04/03/16 01:13 PM

APF Mathemagician

This is a calculator, a math teaching tool, and 6 simple games. To use the calculator:

Enter your problem on the numberpad.
Press num-enter (it says =)
Press C (answer shows).

The 6 games each require a plastic overlay which is not in MESS.


Coleco Amaze-a-tron

This is a maze game. You must plot your way from start to finish.
To play:

Press M to select the game type (display shows P1 to P8). For a single player, choose P5.
Press N to start the game. It shows your starting position.
Press the button corresponding to that position. It then shows the ending position.
You need to choose a horizontal or vertical adjacent position to move to. Press that button.
You get a sound to indicate right or wrong (the sound is obvious).
When you reach the ending position you get another sound.


Coleco Total Control 4

This is a handheld game with a choice of 4 cartridges - American football, Basketball, Soccer, and Hockey. The cartridge carries the overlay of the playing field and snaps onto the front centre of the main unit. The joysticks and other controls are mounted on 'wings' on the main unit, to the left and right of the cart.


Epoch Dracula

You need external artwork for this game. The numeric displays are missing from the internal artwork.

5 : Select (use this to select skill level 1,2,3,4. It beeps each time to indicate a change of level).
1 : Start the game. It plays a little tune.
Ctrl : Hammer
Arrows : Joystick


Hanimex (Soundic) Pencil II

SD-BASIC usage:
All commands must be in uppercase, which is the default at boot. The 'capslock' is done by pressing Shift and Esc together, and the cursor will change to a checkerboard pattern.


Ideal Electronic Detective

To play:

When you start the game, it beeps 3 times then displays 'On'.
Choose difficulty (1,2,3)
Choose number of players (1,2,3,4)
Press Enter and you hear a tune.
The display shows a number (victim's number) and a letter (location of the carcass)
The game has started and you need to use the manual and the play cards. Good luck solving the case!


Milton-Bradley Comp IV

This is the same as the well-known game Mastermind. You can choose to have 3, 4, or 5 digits. No digits are repeated.

To play:

Press R. It selects the answer, which you need to work out. Wait until R is lit.
Now make your first guess, then E. The number of digits entered determines the difficulty (3/4/5).
The NUMBER column indicates how many correct digits you entered (but not which ones).
The SEQUENCE column indicates how many of those digits are in the correct place.
Note: if you entered a digit more than once (example 222), and there is a 2 in the answer, it will show 3 correct digits.
Enter your next guess, then E. If you enter the wrong number of digits, 1 will flash.
If you take too long, R will start to flash.
When you get the correct answer, all the numbers flash. Press R for another game.


Bradley-Milton Simon

To play:

In the Configuration menu, choose the Game Selection, and the Skill Level (1=easiest)
Use your mouse to click on Start


Parker Brothers Code Name: Sector

See the Manual for how to play.

A : Turn left
S : Turn right
F : Slower
G : Faster
Q : Next ship
T : Move ship
J : Evasive sub
X : Aim
C : Fire
Z : Range
E : Recall
M : Sub finder
B : Teach mode

If you don't do anything for a short while, the display turns into 2 flashing dots in order to preserve the battery.


Parker Brothers Merlin

This handheld device could play 6 games. The manual refers to buttons 0 through 10, but the artwork has no button numbers. They are arranged thus:

1 2 3
4 5 6
7 8 9

Game List:
1: Tic-Tac-Toe
2: Music Machine
3: Echo
4: Blackjack 13
5: Magic Square
6: Mindbender

To play:

Use your mouse to click NEW GAME.
Click on the button corresponding to the game you wish to play (1,2,3,4,5,6)
The 10 light will flash and you'll get a sound. The game has started.
Read the Merlin Manual for further instructions.


Parker Brothers Stop Thief

This game requires a board and various articles such as cards and cash, together with the Electronic Crime Scanner. MESS only emulates the crime scanner, which produces every sound the thief makes. However it's up to you to work out where he is. For example, press C to get a clue (first clue is the fact that a crime is being committed - somewhere).


Parker Brothers Wildfire

This is a handheld game of pinball. MESS needs external artwork, as the game is completely unplayable as is.

To play:

The keys: Ctrl = left flipper; Alt = right flipper; Space = shooter (the thing that puts the ball into play)
To have more than 1 player, hold down Ctrl and tap Alt until you have 2,3,4 players (PL2,PL3,PL4) (MESS shows bd instead of PL)
The default speed is 2. To change, Hold down Alt and tap Ctrl to change (SP1 or SP3) (MESS shows Sb instead of SP)
Press Space to start. Display will show (player - ball) (MESS shows 1F1 instead of 1-1)
Press Space to get the ball into play. Display will show your score. Now you are playing.


Tandy 12 Computerized Arcade

To Play:

With your mouse, point at the SELECT button.
Hold down the left mouse button, and wait till the game you want lights up, then release the button.
Click the START button.


Tomy Alien Chase

To play:

If you want to skip levels, press down-arrow the required number of times.
Press up-arrow to start.


Tomytronic Tennis

This game needs external artwork before it can be considered playable.

To play:

In the Configuration menu, choose the number of Players (1), and the Difficulty
Press 1 to serve (press 2 for player 2)
Press one of the 6 buttons to return serve (Player 1 uses Ctrl, Alt, Space, Shift, Z, X)

Reged: 08/21/04
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Loc: Land of Oz
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MESS-based things for Gameinit.dat pt 2 new [Re: Robbbert]
#352382 - 04/03/16 01:24 PM


When started, press ? key for a list of commands.



C - Echo to printer ( C '+' turns it on)
D - boot from disk
G - Go
L - Load tape
P - Run from pc reg
R - Display regs
S - Save tape
T - Trace
V - Set breakpoint

M - Modify memory
MV - Modify memory at breakpoint address
MG - Modify memory from Go address
MP - Modify memory from pc-reg address
MR - Modify regs

While modifying memory:
, show next address
- show previous address
enter show next address



Note that Z command will get you into BASIC, and BYE command takes you back to the Monitor.

S xxxx yyyy = to save memory to tape.
L = to load it back in.

Since there is no motor control, type in L then mount the tape.


Acorn System 1

- (modify) Memory display and modification l (load) Reads a block of bytes from tape
X (go) Run program starting at an address r (return) Resume after a breakpoint
p (point) Inserts or removes breakpoint (up) Increment displayed address
s (store) Writes a block of bytes to tape (down) Decrement displayed address

0-F : as is
(inc) : ^
(dec) : V
M (memory) : -
G (Go) : X

Test Paste:
Now press up-arrow to confirm the data has been entered.

Example usage: Turn on. Press -. Mode letter will show 'A'. Type in an address
(example FE00). Press - (or any command key). Contents will show
on the right. Use Up & Down keys to cycle through addresses.

To save a tape, press S then enter start address, press S, enter end address+1,
start recording and press S. The save only takes a few seconds.

To load a tape, the display must just have dots, (reset if necessary), start
playing tape and immediately press L. The last digit will flicker
as the bytes load. At the end, the dots will show again. There's
no error checking, so if it doesn't work, reset and try again.

Note that left-most digit is not wired up, and therefore will always be blank.



All commands must be in uppercase. Address and data is
specified in Octal format (not hex).

Press space to input your command line (not return).

D - Memory Dump
J - Jump to address
M - Modify memory



0-F : as is
^ (inc) : ^
AD : -
DA : =
GO : X

Test Paste:
Now press up-arrow to confirm the data has been entered.



Monitor Commands:
B = Boot from floppy
(YES! Most useless monitor ever)



0-F : as is
INC : ^
AD : -
DA : =
GO : X

Here is a test program to turn on the LEDs.
Copy the text and Paste into the emulator.


basic52 and basic31

The driver is working, however there are issues with the cpu serial code.
When started, you are supposed to press Space and the system works out
the baud rate and boots up.

However, the way the cpu is written, it actually passes bytes around, so
the auto-speed detection doesn't work as intended.

So, as it stands, start the driver, then press d and g in turn until
something starts happening. Basic-52 usually starts at a very slow rate,
about 1 character per second, while Basic-31 is much faster.

Once the system starts, all input must be in uppercase. Read the manual
to discover the special features of this Basic.


Big Board II

Monitor commands:
B - boot from disk
C - copy memory
D - dump memory
F - fill memory
G - go
I - in port
M - modify memory
O - out port
R - read a sector
T - test memory
V - compare blocks of memory
X - change banks



All input must be in uppercase.

A - See and alter memory
B - Set breakpoint (2 permitted)
C - Clear breakpoint
D - cassette save
G - Go to address, run
L - cassette load
S - See and alter registers

BINBUG is an alternate bios to PIPBUG, however it uses its own
video output. Method of output is through a DG640 board (sold by
Applied Technology) which uses a MCM6574 as a character generator.
The DG640 also supports blinking, reverse-video, and LORES graphics.
It is a S100 card, also known as ETI-640.

Keyboard input, like PIPBUG, is via a serial device.
The baud rate is 300, 8N1.



0-F : as is
NEXT : ^
SMEM : -
GO : X

Test Paste:
Now press up-arrow to confirm the data has been entered.




0-F : as is
+ (inc) : ^
- (dec) : V
M : -
GO : X

Test Paste:
Now press up-arrow to confirm the data has been entered.

R : REGister
M : MEMory manipulation
G : GO
F10 : RESet

Functions (press F1 then the indicated number):
0 : FILL
1 : SAVE
2 : LOAD
4 : MOVE
5 : IN
6 : OUT

When REG is chosen, use UP to scroll through the list of regs,
or press 0 thru C to choose one directly:
0 : SP
1 : PC
2 : AF
3 : BC
4 : DE
5 : HL
6 : AF'
7 : BC'
8 : DE'
9 : HL'
B : IX
C : IY

When MEM is chosen, enter the address, press UP, enter data, press UP, enter
data of next byte, and so on.


CCS Model 2810

Press Enter to start the system.
All commands are in uppercase.

A Assign logical device
Dn,n Dump memory
E Punch End-of-File to paper tape
F Fill
G Go
H Hex arithmetic
I In
L Punch Leader to paper tape
M Move
O Out
Q Query logical devices
R Read a file from paper tape
S Edit memory
T Test memory
V Verify (compare 2 blocks of memory)
W Write a file to paper tape
X Examine Registers
Y Set Baud rate of i8250
Z Zleep (lock terminal). Press control+G twice to unlock.


CCS Model 2422B

Same as above, plus some extra commands

B Boot from floppy
L removed
P Set disk parameters e.g. P0 10 0 = drive A, 10 sectors per track, 1 sided
Q Set disk position for raw read/write e.g. Q6 0 9 = track 6, side 0, sector 9
Rs f Read absolute disk data (set by P and Q) to memory range s to f
Ws f Write absolute disk data (set by P and Q) from memory range s to f



Commands (must be in uppercase):
A Examine memory; press C to alter memory
B Set breakpoint?
C View breakpoint?
D Dump to tape
E Execute
I ?
L Load
R ?
V Verify?
Press Esc to exit most commands.


Driver for Casio CFX-9850

To operate:
The unit is switched off by default, you have to switch it on by pressing 'Q'.

Currently (year2011) it is on by default, the only key that works is '\'
which turns it off. After that nothing happens.

Debugging information:
1. g 10b3 (Initialise system)
2. cs=23
3. ip= one of these: ip=d1a4,d1af,d1ba,d1c5,d1d0,d1db,d1ea,d1f9,d208,d217,
4. g 23108c to get a test pattern on the screen.



C Compare
D Dump
F Fill
M Move
S Edit
X Registers

For most commands, enter all 4 digits of each hex address, the system will
add the appropriate spacing as you type. No need to press Enter.

The L command looks like it might be for loading a file, for example
L ABC will read/write to port 70,71,73 and eventually time out if you wait
a while. No idea if it wants to read a disk or a tape. There doesn't seem
to be a save command.




0 - start user program
1 - inspect and/or change memory
2 - write memory block to cassette
3 - read memory block from cassette
4 - move memory block
5 - write memory block to EPROM
C - start user program from address 0000


CVICNY8080 - Practice-z80 - a homebrew from Czechoslavakia.

More data at :

0-9,A-F : hexadecimal numbers
ADR : enter an address to work with. After the 4 digits are entered,
the data at that address shows, and you can modify the data.
+ (inc) : Enter the data into memory, and increment the address by 1.
GO : execute the program located at the current address.

0-F : as is
+ (inc) : ^
ADR : -
GO : X

Test Paste:
Now press up-arrow to confirm the data has been entered.



The Dream 6800 is a CHIP-8 computer roughly modelled on the Cosmac VIP.
It was described in Electronics Australia magazine in 4 articles starting
in May 1979. It has 1k of ROM and 1k of RAM. The video consists of 64x32
pixels. The keyboard is a hexcode 4x4 matrix, plus a Function key.

Designed by Michael Bauer, of the Division of Computing and Mathematics
at Deakin University, Australia.

NOTE that the display only updates after each 4 digits is entered, and
you can't see what you type as you change bytes. This is by design.

The cassette has no checksum, header or blocks. It is simply a stream
of pulses. The successful loading of a tape is therefore a matter of luck.

Function keys:
FN 0 - Modify memory - firstly enter a 4-digit address, then 2-digit data
the address will increment by itself, enter the next byte.
FN by itself will step to the next address.

FN 1 - Tape load. You must have entered the start address at 0002, and
the end address+1 at 0004 (big-endian).

FN 2 - Tape save. You must have entered the start address at 0002, and
the end address+1 at 0004 (big-endian).

FN 3 - Run. You must have entered the 4-digit go address first.

All CHIP-8 programs load at 0x200 (max size 4k), and exec address
is C000.

Information and programs can be found at



Dolphin / Dauphin

Minimal Setup:
0000-00FF ROM "MO" (74S471)
0100-01FF ROM "MONI" (74S471)
0200-02FF RAM (2x 2112)
18 pushbuttons for programming (0-F, ADR, NXT).
4-digit LED display.

Other options:
0400-07FF Expansion RAM (8x 2112)
0800-08FF Pulse for operation of an optional EPROM programmer
0C00-0FFF ROM "MONA" (2708)
LEDs connected to all Address and Data Lines
LEDs connected to WAIT and FLAG lines.
Speaker with a LED wired across it.
PAUSE switch.
RUN/STOP switch.
STEP switch.
CLOCK switch.

Cassette player connected to SENSE and FLAG lines.

Keyboard encoder: AY-5-2376 (57 keys)

CRT interface: (512 characters on a separate bus)
2114 video ram (one half holds the lower 4 data bits, other half the upper bits)
74LS175 holds the upper bits for the 74LS472
74LS472 Character Generator

NOTE: a rom is missing, when the ADR button (- key) is pressed,
it causes a freeze in nodebug mode, and a crash in debug mode.
To see it, start in debug mode. g 6c. In the emulation, press the
minus key. The debugger will stop and you can see an instruction
referencing location 0100, which is in the missing rom.

0-9,A-F hexadecimal numbers
UP - (NXT) to enter data and advance to the next address
MINUS - (ADR) to change the address to what is shown in the data side
Special keys:
Hold UP, hold 0, release UP, release 0 - execute program at the current address (i.e. 2xx)
Hold UP, hold 1, release UP, release 1 - execute program at address 0C00 (rom MONA)
Hold UP, hold 2, release UP, release 2 - play a tune with the keys
Hold UP, hold 3, release UP, release 3 - decrement the address by 2
Hold MINUS, hold any hex key, release MINUS, release other key - execute program
at the current address-0x100 (i.e. 1xx).

If you want to scan through other areas of memory (e.g. the roms), alter the
data at address 2F9 (high byte) and 2FA (low byte).

How to Use:
The red digits are the address, and the orange digits are the data.
The address range is 200-2FF (the 2 isn't displayed). To select an address,
either press the UP key until you get there, or type the address and press
minus. The orange digits show the current data at that address. To alter
data, just type it in and press UP.

To play the reflexes game, hold UP, press 1, release UP, release 1.
The display will show A--0 (or some random number in the last position).
Press any odd-numbered key (B is convenient), and read off the reaction time.
After a short delay it will show '--' again, this is the signal to react.
It doesn't seem to reset the counters each time around.



DG680 (ETI-680), using the DGOS-Z80 operating system.

This is a S100 card.

In some ways, this system is the ancestor of the original Microbee.

Port 0 is the input from an ascii keyboard.

Port 2 is the cassette interface.

Port 8 controls some kind of memory protection scheme.
The code indicates that B is the page to protect, and
A is the code (0x08 = inhibit; 0x0B = unprotect;
0x0C = enable; 0x0E = protect). There are 256 pages so
each page is 256 bytes.

The clock is controlled by the byte in D80D.

Monitor Commands:
C (compare)*
E (edit)*
F (fill)*
G - Go to address
I - Inhibit CTC
M (move)*
P (clear screen)*
R (read tape)*
S (search)*
T hhmm [ss] - Set the time
W (write tape)*
X - protection status
XC - clear ram
XD - same as X
XE - enable facilities
XF - disable facilities
XP - protect block
XU - unprotect block
Z - go to 0000.

* These commands are identical to the Microbee ones.



Digital Microsystems DMS-86

Monitor commands:
B boot to HiNet
D dump memory to screen
I in port
L memory test
O out port (e.g. O 84 77)
S write a byte to memory
X display registers

Note that bit 3 of port 82 is tested at boot. If low, the computer bypasses
the monitor and goes straight to "Joining HiNet".

Reged: 08/21/04
Posts: 2912
Loc: Land of Oz
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MESS-based things for Gameinit.dat pt 3 new [Re: Robbbert]
#352383 - 04/03/16 01:39 PM


EA Car Computer

Described in Electronics Australia magazine during 1982.
Construction and usage:

The only RAM is the 128 bytes that comes inside the CPU.

This computer is mounted in a car, and various sensors (fuel flow, etc)
are connected up. By pressing the appropriate buttons various statistics
may be obtained.

Memory Map
0000-007F internal ram
4000-7FFF ROM
8000-BFFF 6821
C000-FFFF ROM (mirror)

Setting up: You need to enter the number of expected pulses from the fuel
and distance sensors. Paste this: 5 6M123N 7M400N (start, set litres cal to
123 pulses. set km cal to 400 pulses). Then paste this: 1950M0N 1845M0N (set
petrol tank capacity to 50 litres, set current amount of petrol to 45).
Now enter: 28M100N (the journey is 100km). Press 5 to start the journey.
All settings are saved in nvram.

Stats you can see while travelling:
0 - time elapsed
08 - time remaining
1 - fuel used
18 - fuel left
2 - km travelled
28 - km remaining
29 - km that could be travelled with the fuel you have left
3 - speed now
39 - average speed
4 - fuel consumption now (litres per 100km)
49 - fuel average consumption


Elektor SC/MP

To Use:
- Press MINUS to enter data input mode
- Press UP or DOWN to cycle through addresses

At the moment Paste cannot be tested, but if it worked, you could
paste this in: -0F0011^22^33^44^55^66^77^88^99^

It seems the only way to exit each mode is to do a Soft Reset.


Explorer 85

Setting Up
The terminal must be set for
- Baud: 9600
- Format: 7E1
If it isn't, adjust the settings, then restart the system.

Once started, press Space. The system will start up.
All input must be in upper case.


Goldstar FC-100 (FC stands for Famicom)

No manuals or schematics available.
Shift-Run to BREAK out of CLOAD.
Cassette uses the uart.
There is an inbuilt Monitor. MON to enter. Commands are D,G,M,R,S,X.

Test of semigraphic 6
20 FOR I=0 TO 360
30 PSET(128+SIN(I)*90,91-COS(I)*90), 1



Heathkit H8

This system uses Octal rather than the usual hexadecimal.

It runs, keyboard works, you can enter data.

Meaning of LEDs:
PWR = power is turned on
MON = controls should work
RUN = CPU is running (not halted)
ION = Interrupts are enabled

0-F : as is
+ : ^
- : V
MEM : -

Addresses must have all 6 digits entered.
Data must have all 3 digits entered.
System has a short beep for each key, and a slightly longer beep
for each group of 3 digits. The largest number allowed is 377 (=0xFF).

Test Paste:
-041000=123 245 333 144 255 366 077=-041000
Now press up-arrow to confirm the data has been entered.

Official test program from pages 4 to 8 of the operator's manual:
-040100=076 002 062 010 040 006 004 041 170 040 021 013 040 016 011 176
022 043 023 015 302 117 040 016 003 076 377 315 053 000 015 302
131 040 005 302 112 040 076 062 315 140 002 076 062 315 053 000
076 062 315 140 002 303 105 040 377 262 270 272 275 377 222 200
377 237 244 377 272 230 377 220 326 302 377 275 272 271 271 373
271 240 377 236 376 362 236 376 362 236 376 362 R6=040100=4


Heathkit H89

Monitor Commands:
B Boot
C Convert (number)
G Go (address)
I In (address)
O Out (address,data)
R Radix (H/O)
S Substitute (address)
T Test Memory
V View


Homebrew Z80 Computer by Kun-Szabo Marton

All commands must be entered in uppercase, and since the capslock
doesn't work, you need to hold the shift key down.

There is next to no error checking, for example the T command
is to set the time. Entering T by itself will set the time to
99:99:99, while G will cause a jump to 9999 and so forth. Also
the parameter must be right next to the command, spaces will cause
invalid input. Example M1234 will display a byte of memory at 1234,
while M 1234 will display memory at 9123.


Imsai MPU-B. One of the earliest single-board computers on a S100 card.

Press any key to start the monitor program.


Signetics Intructor 50

Quick usage:
- Look at memory: Press minus key. Enter an address. Press UP key to see the next.
- Look at registers: Press R. Press 0. Press UP key to see the next.
- Set PC register: Press R. Press C. Type in new address, Press UP.
- Load a tape: Press L, enter file number (1 digit), press UP. On
completion of a successful load, HELLO will be displayed.



Monitor Commands:
C Call (address)
D Dump memory, any key to dump more, Return to finish
F Fill memory (start, end, withwhat)
G Goto (address)
L Cassette load
M Move (source start, source end, destination)
R Run
S Edit memory
W Cassette save (start, end, goto (0 for null))
X Display/Edit registers


Jade JGZ80 Single board computer on a S100 card.

It takes about 8 seconds to start up.
Type HE to get a list of commands.


Elektor Junior

This is heavily based on the KIM-1, the keycodes and operation being identical.

0-F : as is
+ (inc) : ^
AD : -
DA : =
GO : X

(note: DA only works when addressing RAM)

Test Paste:
Now press up-arrow to confirm the data has been entered.


Robotron K8915

When it says DIAGNOSTIC RAZ P, press enter.



0-F : as is
+ (inc) : ^
AD : -
DA : =
GO : X

(note: DA only works when addressing RAM)

Test Paste:
Now press up-arrow to confirm the data has been entered.



When first started, the screen is blank. Wait about 8 seconds for
it to introduce itself, then you may use it or paste to it.
The decimal points indicate which side of the display you will
be updating.

0-F : as is
+ (inc) : ^
- (dec) : V
ADR : -
DAT : =
GO : X

Test Paste: (lc80_2 only)
Now press up-arrow to confirm the data has been entered.


Cromemco MCB-216 SCC (Single Card Computer), and the CB-308.

Memory allocation
- 0000 to 0FFF - standard roms
- 1000 to 1FFF - optional roms or ram (expect roms)
- 2000 to 23FF - standard ram
- 2400 to FFFF - optional whatever the user wants (expect ram)

Press Enter twice. You will see the Basic OK prompt. To get into the
monitor, use the QUIT command, and to return use the B command.

The mcb216 can use an optional floppy-disk-drive unit. The only other
storage is paper-tape, which is expected to be attached to the terminal.

Press Enter twice. You will see the Monitor logo. To get into the BASIC,
enter GE400. To return to the monitor, use the QUIT command followed by
pressing Enter twice. All monitor commands must be in uppercase. The
only storage is paper-tape.



Some Monitor commands (varies between versions):

B - boot a floppy (^N to regain control)
E - prints a number
I - Select boot drive/set parameters
K,O - display version header
N - newline
Z - print 'EFFF'


Motorola Evaluation Kit 6800 D2 - MEK6800D2

Enter the 4 digit address then the command key:

- M : Examine and Change Memory (example: E000M, then G to skip to next, ESC to exit)
- E : Escape (abort) operation (ESC key in our emulation)
- R : Examine Registers
- G : Begin execution at specified address
- P : Punch data from memory to magnetic tape
- L : Load memory from magnetic tape
- N : Trace one instruction
- V : Set (and remove) breakpoints

The keys are laid out as:


7 8 9 A M
4 5 6 B E
1 2 3 C R
0 F E D G

0-F : as is
NEXT : ^
MEM : =
GO : ^

Test Paste:
Now press up-arrow to confirm the data has been entered.

If you wish to follow the tutorial in the manual, here is the test
program that you need to enter in step 1:

Save the above program to tape:
HA002=00^20^00^32^HP (A002 has start address, A004 has end address, big endian)


MITS Altair 680b

Monitor Commands:
L switch to terminal mode
N modify memory in a limited way
P this does a rti and causes a momentary crash. Weird.



Multitech Microkit09

0-F : as is
(inc) : ^
(dec) : V
M (memory) : -
G (Go) : X

Test Paste:
-0000 00^11^22^33^44^55^66^77^88^99^--0000
Now press up-arrow to confirm the data has been entered.


MMD-1 & MMD-2


It appears that you enter an 3 digit octal number and then hit a function key.
H - puts the number in the H register
L - puts the number in the L register
S - puts the number into memory pointed to by HL and then increments HL.
G - Loads the program counter with the contents of HL

1) There is a 'working byte' which you can enter using the octal digits
(just press them in order), and which is displayed on the port 2 LEDs
when KEX is running.

2) 'R' is a hardware reset

3) 'H' and 'L' are used to load the address (high and low parts, and it
really is the HL register of the 8080). So to enter a particular address,
you type in the high half (in octal), press H. Then type in the low half
and press L. The address is displayed on the port 0 and port 1 LEDs when
KEX is running.

4) 'S' is 'Step' or 'Store'. It stores the working byte at the current
address (in HL), and then increments the address. It's used to enter
bytes into memory

5) 'G' is 'go'. It loads the 8080 PC with the address in HL, and thus
executes a program at that address.

OK, this is what I would try.

1) Press 'R' to reset the 8080 and start KEX running.

2) Type 004 H 000 L to load the start address of your program. The bytes
should appear on the rightmost 8 LEDs as you enter them and should then
also appear on the left and middle sets of LEDs when you press H and L.

3) Enter the program

076 S 123 S 323 S 000 S 166S

As you type each byte it should appear on the rightmost LEDs. When you
press S, the address on the rest of the LEDs should increment by 1.

4) Re-enter the start address
004 H 000 L

5) Press G to run the program. The left most LEDs should change to
.*.*..** (. = off, * = on), I think. The keys will then do nothing (as
the CPU is halted) until you press R again to re-run KEX.

When is keyboard LINE3 scanned? it isn't - it's a reset button.

Memory map:

* 4K RAM addresses $0000..$0FFF
* ROM addresses $D800..$E7FF
* 256 bytes of RAM, ($FC00..$FCFF?)

DIP switches:

* WE 0 - Write enable for addresses $0000..$03FF
* WE 1 - Write enable for addresses $0400..$07FF
* WE 2 - Write enable for addresses $0800..$0BFF
* WE 3 - Write enable for addresses $0C00..$0FFF
* SPARE - ???
* HEX OCT - choose display and entry to be in Hexadecimal or Octal
* PUP RESET - ???
* EXEC USER - update binary LED's with data entry? Or not?
(in either setting, outputs to ports 0,1,2 still show)


* Enter bytes on the keypad of hex digits
* Set MSByte of address by entering it on the keypad & pressing "HIGH".
* ... LSByte ... "LOW"
* Change contents of memory at the selected address by entering the new value & pressing "STORE".
* Look at adjacent memory locations with "NEXT" and "PREV".
* Execute the program at the selected address by pressing "GO".

AUX functions:

* BRL HI # - OFF disables BRL LO
* BRL LO #
* STEP #
* SRC HI # - source for COPY/DUMP - OFF disables "DUMP" function
* DES HI # - destination for COPY/DUMP
* LEN HI # - length for COPY/DUMP
* CLR TST ON - test if PROM is empty
* POP PRM ON - program a PROM
* DUP TST ON - test if PROM duplicated okay
* PROM 2708/2716
* BAUD 110/150/300/600/1200

The memory map can be rearranged by the system by using IN5, IN6, IN7.
A pair of undumped proms control what goes where on each map.
Each set of ROMs also has its own pair of PROMs.

I/O ports:
IN0: user expansion
IN1: 0-TTYIN, 1-CASSIN, 3-SW8(binary/ports), 4-SW7(reset/pup), 5-SW6(hex/oct), 6-(pup signal)
IN3: 8279 status
IN4: 8279 key
IN5: set MAP1
IN6: set MAP2
IN7: set MAP3
IN8: read eprom (in the eprom programmer)
OUT3: 8279 control
OUT4: 8279 7-segment LED data
OUT9: turn pup signal off
OUTA: programming pulse on/off (eprom programmer)


Microsystems International Limited MOD-8

All commands consist of 3 uppercase letters. If further info is required
then a * prompt is printed on a new line, where you will enter the data.
All numbers are OCTAL (3/6 digits with leading zeros). Since a teletypewriter
is being used, there is no cursor. Do NOT press Enter except after these
commands, otherwise things get confusing.

LOC - set current location pointer (the CLP)
DLP - display CLP
DPS - dump symbolic
LDO - load octal
DPO - dump octal
LBF - load BNPF format
DBF - dump BNPF format
EDT - enter Edit Mode
XQT - initiate program execution
CPY - copy routine
TRN - translate routine
SBP - set breakpoint
CBP - clear breakpoint
PRG - program PROM

Pressing Ctrl-A will escape back to the monitor. You will see 8 dashes.

Commands in the Edit Mode:
When you enter the Edit Mode it displays the CLP followed by a slash.

nnn - enter a new value into this memory location and increment the CLP
` (tic) - decrement CLP
@ - same as XQT
R - return to monitor
*nnnnnn - change CLP to this value
space - display current contents of memory

While in 'space' mode, press a letter to increment CLP, or shift-delete
(underscore character) followed by a new byte for this location.


MYCOMZ-80A (c) 1981 Japan Electronics College

- All commands must be in uppercase - lowercase will produce errors.
- There are 5 special keys which do crude editing functions. These are in
the range 0x61 to 0x75. Kana characters occupy the range 0xa0 to 0xff.
Graphics characters are found in 0x00 to 0x1f, and 0x80 to 0x9f.
- Editing characters (hold down shift to get them):
a - shiftlock (toggle). You can then enter any lowercase character.
c - clear screen and home cursor
d - insert
f - vertical tab (cursor up) You can scroll backwards with this,
and you can reuse old input lines.
u - cursor right
- There are switches on the right-hand side which are connected directly
to one of the PIAs. The switches (not emulated):
s2 - ?unknown
s3 - ?unknown but must be high for the keyboard to function
s4 - cassette motor on/off
s5 - ?unknown
- There is also switch s1 which it is not known what it connects to.
- Please note: The Takeda 80-column monitor expects the enter key to be the
line feed key. This is the numpad-enter in our emulation. Strangely, the
standard monitor, and Basic, will also respond to this key.
- The keyboard has a "English" key on the left, and a "Japan" key on the
right. Pressing the appropriate key toggles the input language mode.
Internally, this turns the Kana bit off/on. On our keyboard, the ALT key
toggles between English and Kana.


Reged: 08/21/04
Posts: 2912
Loc: Land of Oz
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MESS-based things for Gameinit.dat pt 4 new [Re: Robbbert]
#352384 - 04/03/16 01:47 PM


- You need to press a key every so often.

Usage of terminal:
- okean240 - the keyboard
- okean240a - not used
- okean240t - the keyboard & screen



- These machines only uses uppercase input. Shift-Lock must be on at all times.
- At boot you get a screen DCWM or similar:
D = boot from floppy
C = Cold boot & start BASIC
W = Warm boot (don't use after turning on the machine) jump to 0000.
M = Monitor (only options are to read/modify memory, Go, Load a tape).
- The corrupt error messages in Basic are normal and are documented in the user
manual. It's not a bug.

Compukit UK101
- The Monitor ROM that had always been there is for a 32x32 screen. It's assumed
to be the prototype referred to in the first Practical Electronics construction
article. Also, the keyboard doesn't work in Basic.
- Found a working rom in another emulator, this runs fine on the 64x16 screen.
- But, the proper rom that came with the kit needs to be found.
- The proper rom (and the prototype) allow you to boot from floppy, but this is
not normally fitted. It appears that it would work the same as in the other
osi systems.

Try the following program with -bios 0 and -bios 1. It will work only
with bios 1. You can copy/paste this code, but make sure you include a
trailing blank line.

10 DIM A$(3)



P8000 monitor commands
* B : ?
* D : display and modify memory
* F : fill memory
* G : go to
* M : move (copy) memory
* N : dump registers
* O : boot from floppy
* P : ?
* Q : ?
* R : dump registers
* S : boot from floppy
* T : jump to ROM at CEF0
* X : jump to ROM at DB00
* return : boot from floppy disk

P8000_16 : All input must be in uppercase.



1 select memory bank 1
2 select memory bank 2
C start cp/m from the inbuilt CCP
D Debugger
Fx Format disk A or B
G Jump to address
I List files on tape
L filename.typ Load file from tape
R read from disk
S filename aaaa / bbbb save a file to tape
V verify
W write to disk
Z set tape baud (1200, 2400, 3600 (default), 4800)
filename start running this .COM file

Therefore if you enter random input, it will lock up while trying to
load up a file of that name. Filenames on disk and tape are of the
standard 8.3 format. You must specify an extension.

Here is an example of starting the debugger, executing a command in
it, then exiting back to the monitor.


In practice, the I and R commands produce an error, while all disk
commands are directed to tape. The F command lists the files on a



To load and play a game:
- Load a .rim file into the first tape reader
- Hold down Left Control, and press Enter. Let go.
- The lights will flash while the paper tape is being read.
- At the end, the game will start.



Aamber Pegasus computer (New Zealand)

Each copy of the monitor rom was made for an individual machine.
The early bios versions checked that it was running on that
particular computer.

This computer has no sound.

The usual way of loading a new rom was to plug it into the board.
We have replaced this with cartslots, to save having to recompile
whenever a new rom is found. Single rom programs will usually work in
any slot (if it is going to work at all). A working rom will appear
in the menu. Press the first letter to run it.

If a machine language program is loaded via cassette, do it in the
Monitor (L command), when loaded press Enter, and it will be in the

Basic cassettes are loaded in the usual way, that is, start Basic,
type LOAD, press Enter. When done, RUN or LIST as needed.


Sanyo PHC-25

LOCK key (CAPSLOCK) selects upper-case/lower-case on international version
(phc25), and selects hiragana/upper-case on Japanese version (phc25j).


PHUNSY (Philipse Universal System)

Baud Rate ~ 6000 baud
W command to save data, eg 800-8FFW
R command to read data, eg 1100R to load the file at 1100, or R to load the file where it came from.
The tape must already be playing the leader when you press the Enter key, or it errors immediately.

Rom banking (in U bank):
1U: MDCR program
2U: Disassembler
3U: Label handler


P.I.M.P.S. (Personal Interactive MicroProcessor System)

A Assemble Code
D Dump Memory
E Enter the Text Editor
F Full Duplex Host Operation
G Go To
H Half Duplex Host Operation
M Memory
P Port
S Substitute
T Transparent Mode
U Usart Parameters for Host
V Virtual Memory



All input must be in uppercase.

A - See and alter memory
B - Set breakpoint (2 permitted)
C - Clear breakpoint
D - Dump memory to paper tape
G - Go to address, run
L - Load memory from paper tape
S - See and alter registers

PIPBUG isn't a computer; it is a the name of the bios used
in a number of small 2650-based computers from 1976 to 1978.
Examples include Baby 2650, Eurocard 2650, etc., plus Signetics
own PC1001, PC1500, and KT9500 systems. PIPBUG was written by Signetics.

The sole means of communication is via a serial terminal.
PIPBUG uses the SENSE and FLAG pins as serial lines, thus
there is no need for a UART. The baud rate is 110.

The Baby 2650 (featured in Electronics Australia magazine in
March 1977) has 256 bytes of RAM.

The terminal is expected to have a papertape device attached, and
use it to save and load programs. PIPBUG still thinks it is talking
to the terminal, when in fact the data is flowing to the papertape
reader and punch.



Summary of Monitor commands:

D - dump memory
F - fill memory
G - go (execute program at address)
I - in from a port and display
M - move?
O - out to a port
S - edit memory


Sony Pocketstation

To start a game:
- Wait for the set-date screen to appear
- Press down arrow
- set date with arrows (optional)
- Press Ctrl, wait a sec, press ctrl, press right arrow, game starts

It doesn't save the date so you have to go through this procedure every time.

If you do nothing for about 20 secs, it turns itself off (screen goes white).


Poly-Computer 880

After starting this driver, the screen may be blank. Press F2 until
something appears (most likely 'Go'). Then it can be used, or pasted to.

To see it say POLY-880, start the system, press F2, F1, F2.

0-F : as is
EXEC : ^
MEM : -
GO : X

Test Paste:
Now press up-arrow to confirm the data has been entered.


Psion Organiser II series

- NVRAM works only if the machine is turned off (with OFF menu) before closing MESS


Peripheral Technology PT68K2/PT68K4 family

Start up and press Enter as prompted. Type he to see a command list, or fd to boot from the first floppy drive.

The stock NVRAM configures PT68k2 for 2 DSDD 5.25" drives, and PT68k4 for 2 DSHD 5.25" drives.


Pulsar Little Big Board

The terminal must be set for 9600 baud, 7 bits, even parity, 1 stop bit.

Monitor Commands:
B - Boot from disk
D - Dump memory
F - Fill memory
G - Go
I - In port
L - Load bootstrap from drive A to 0x80
M - Modify memory
O - Out port
P - choose which rs232 channel for the console
T - Test memory
V - Move memory
X - Test off-board memory banks


SONY PVE-500 Editing Control Unit
"A/B roll edit controller for professional video editing applications"

One can induce the self-diagnose by booting the device holding LEARN and P2-RESET buttons together.
With the default keyboard map, this can be done by holding keys L and S while pressing F3.
(Don't forget to unlock the keyboard by using the UI TOGGLE key)

This self-diagnose routine displays the value C817, which is the checksum value of the subcpu ROM
and afterwards it displays the following message:

SELFdIAG Error___ _F3 F3_CtC3c

which means it detected an error in the CTC circuitry (it means we're emulating it wrong!)
F3 is the coordinate of the subcpu EPROM chip in the PCB.

According to the service manual, this error code means: "ICF3 CTC CH-3 counter operation failure (No interruption)"



- PYL601 - command 'MODE80' does nothing

- PYL601a - most software looks odd (unplayable) because of the
different design of the screen.
- PYL601A - command 'MODE40' doesn't go to 40-columns, instead
there is a space between each letter.

- to get back to dos, enter SYSTEM
- It has its own internal monitor: MON to enter, Q to exit.


Ravensburger Selbstbaucomputer

This is a project described in "Ravensburger" magazine. You had to make
the entire thing (including the circuit boards) yourself.

No instructions, no schematics - it's all guesswork.

The cassette saves a noise but it returns a bad load.

Version 0.9
0000-07FF ROM "MON1"
0800-1FFF RAM (3x HM6116)
24 pushbuttons and 6-digit LED display on front panel.
Other buttons and switches on the main board.

The few photos show the CPU and a number of ordinary 74LSxxx chips.
There is a XTAL of unknown frequency.

The buttons are labelled CMD, RUN, GOTO, RST, F, MON, PC, NXT but at
this time not all buttons are identified.

What is known:
- Press NXT to read memory. Press NXT again to read the next address.
- Press PC and it says PCxxxx
- Press CMD, it says CND=, you can choose one of these:
-- A displays value of a register. Press A again to see more registers.
-- B sets a breakpoint
-- C clears a breakpoint
-- D dumps blocks to tape
-- E examine tape file
-- F fetch (load) from tape

Quickload: Load the program then press Y. There are 6 that work and
6 that do nothing.

Version V2.0
This used a terminal interface with a few non-standard control codes.
The pushbuttons and LEDs appear to have been done away with.

Commands (must be in uppercase):
A Examine memory; press C to alter memory
B Set breakpoint?
C View breakpoint?
D Dump to screen and tape (at the same time)
E Execute
I ?
L Load
R ?
V Verify?


Gundam RX-78 (c) 1983 Bandai

- BS-BASIC v1.0 have a graphic bug with the RX-78 logo, it doesn't set the read bank so all of the color
info minus plane 1 is lost when the screen scrolls vertically. Almost certainly a btanb.
- To stop a cmt load, press STOP + SHIFT keys

Summary of Monitor commands.
- The monitor is entered at bootup. The prompt is the * character. This is followed by a command
letter (upper case). Some commands require hex parameters. You must enter all 4 characters of
these. No spaces allowed except where shown.
- While in BASIC, you may enter the monitor by using the MON command. After you have finished,
you can return to BASIC by entering the command *J2005.

- Tape commands:
*L Load a tape
*V Verify a tape
*S Save a block of memory to tape. You are asked for a filename (blank is allowed), the start address,
the end address, and the Jump address (where it should begin execution)

- Memory commands:
*Dnnnn nnnn Displays a hex dump in the address range entered
*Mnnnn Allows you to examine and modify memory. Enter to skip to next, period (.) to quit.
*Jnnnn Transfer execution (Jump) to a program in memory at the specified address

- Other:
*R This is a block transfer load from a mystery parallel device, using ports E0 and E1,
using handshaking similar to a centronics printer. The incoming file is loaded into
memory and it appears that the operator is not provided any information of what happened.


Reged: 08/21/04
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Loc: Land of Oz
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MESS-based things for Gameinit.dat pt 5 new [Re: Robbbert]
#352385 - 04/03/16 01:56 PM

SacState 8008

All input to be in lowercase.
The weird characters that show on screen are various escape sequences.
These are different depending on the terminal type chosen. The codes
need to be understood and emulated before this system makes sense.

Known Monitor commands: (from the disassembly)
! write buffer to AD000
* set RAM036 flag
+ increment AD000 by 1
+n increment AD000 by n
- decrement AD000 by 1
-n decrement AD000 by n
: clear RAM036 flag
= display AD000
=nnn set AD000 to nnn
@ fill buffer with 026

unknown commands: / & d e l r s t u z \ ^ | ~

Other input will either result in '!' message, or halt.


Savia 84

It's assumed that all the LEDs are red ones. The LEDs down the
left side are assumed to be bit 0 through 7 in that order.

0-F : as is
DA : ^
AD : -
GO : X

Here is a test program. Copy the text and Paste into the emulator.


Seattle Computer SCP-300F S100 card. It has sockets on the card for
one serial and 2 parallel connections.

When started you must press Enter twice before anything happens.

All commands must be in UPPER case.

Known Commands:
B : Boot from disk?
D : Dump memory
E : Edit memory
F : Find
G : Go?
I : Input port
M : Move
O : Output port
R : Display / Modify Registers
S : Search
T : Trace



Test sequence: Press -, enter an address, press = to show contents, press
up/down-arrow to cycle through addresses.


SITCOM (known as Sitcom, Sitcom85, Sitcom8085)

The display consists of a LED connected to SOD, and a pair of DL1414 intelligent alphanumeric displays.

The idea of this device is that you write a 8085 program with an
assembler on your PC. You then compile it, and then send it to
the SITCOM via a serial cable. The program then (hopefully) runs
on the SITCOM. With the 8255 expansion, you could wire up input
devices or other hardware for your program to use.

The SOD LED blinks slowly while waiting; stays on while downloading;
and blinks quickly if an error occurs.

After a successful download, the ROM is switched out and the RAM
mirrored to the lower 32k. The downloaded program is then executed.
This part is not emulated.

In MESS, start emulation. After about 10 seconds the display will
scroll sideways with a message and a URL. There are no input keys.



This computer is both a Z80 trainer, and a chess computer.
The keyboard is different between the two, so
we redefine it for your convenience.

There is no chess board attached. You supply your own
and you sync the pieces and the computer instructions.

When started, it is in Chess mode. Press 11111 to switch to
Trainer mode.

0-7 : hexadecimal numbers
Shift then 0-7 : Hexadecimal 8-F (decimal points will appear)
ADR : enter an address to work with. After the 4 digits are entered,
the data at that address shows, and you can modify the data.
+ (inc) : Enter the data into memory, and increment the address by 1.

Pasting doesn't work, but if it did...

0-7 : as is
8-F : H, then 0-7
+ : ^
- : H^
ADR : -

Test Paste:
Now press up-arrow to confirm the data has been entered.


SSE SoftBox

Standalone vs. PET/CBM Peripheral Mode

The SoftBox can be used as a standalone computer with an RS-232 terminal,
or as a PET/CBM peripheral. This is an emulation of the standalone mode.
For the peripheral mode, see: src/emu/bus/ieee488/softbox.c.

Using the Corvus hard disk

The SoftBox distribution disk (softbox-distrib.d80) is configured for
a CBM 8050 as CP/M drives A/B and a 10MB Corvus hard disk as drives C/D.

Use the CHDMAN utility to create a 10MB hard disk image for the Corvus:

$ chdman createhd -o /path/to/corvus10mb.chd -chs 358,3,20 -ss 512

Start the SoftBox emulator with the floppy and hard disk images mounted:

$ mess softbox -flop1 /path/to/softbox-distrib.d80 \
-hard1 /path/to/corvus10mb.chd

Before the Corvus can be used under CP/M, it must be prepared
by running DIAG.COM and FORMAT.COM.


Enter "diag" (no arguments) at the CP/M prompt to run the Corvus diagnostics
program. This program will perform the Corvus low-level format.

Select option 6 (Update Controller Code) at the menu.
Enter "corvb184.fmt" when prompted for the filename.
Enter "y" at the confirmation prompts.
Enter "1" for the Corvus drive number (two prompts).
After formatting is complete, it will return to the menu.

Select option 3 (Read Controller Code Version #) at the menu.
Enter "1" for the Corvus drive number.
It should report "V18.4AP" and then return to the menu.

Select option 9 to return to CP/M.


Enter "format" (no arguments) at the CP/M prompt to run the SoftBox disk
format program. This program will perform the CP/M filesystem format.

Enter drive letter "c" at the prompt.
Enter "y" to confirm the format.
After formatting is complete, it will prompt for a drive letter again.

Enter drive letter "d" at the prompt.
Enter "y" to confirm the format.
After formatting is complete, it will prompt for a drive letter again.

Press RETURN to return to CP/M.


After all steps are completed, drives C and D should be usable from
CP/M. Each drive is one half of the Corvus 10MB disk. Running the
command "stat c: dsk:" should show 4712 kilobyte drive capacity.
Drive D should show the same information.

Using other Corvus hard disk sizes

The SoftBox supports 5, 10, and 20 MB hard disks. The distribution disk
is configured for 10 MB as explained above. To use other sizes, make
a new image with CHDMAN. See the top of src/mess/includes/corvushd.h
for the parameters for the other drives.

After the image has been created and the SoftBox emulator started with
it mounted, the SoftBox BIOS needs to be told what size Corvus hard
disk is attached. Use the NEWSYS.COM utility to reconfigure the drive
size. When NEWSYS prompts for a source drive, enter "a" (the drive letter
of the CP/M distribution disk). Use option "d" (Disk drive assignment)
to reconfigure the Corvus size. After the change has been made, use option
"s" (Save new system) to write the configuration to the floppy (drive A) and
option "e" (Execute new system) to restart CP/M with the configuration.
DIAG.COM and FORMAT.COM can then be used to format the hard disk.


Processor Technology Corp. SOL-20

Note that the CONSOL rom is basically a dumb terminal program and doesn't
do anything useful unless the MODE key (whatever that is) is pressed.

CUTER is a relocatable cassette-based alternative to SOLOS. According
to the manual, it should work if the sense switches are set to on. But,
it continuously reads port 00 and does nothing.

File Formats:
- Most files are simple ascii which can be loaded via the Paste handler.
These are ASC, ENT, BAS, ROM, BS5 and ECB. Most files require that the
correct version of BASIC be loaded first. Paste works, but it is very
very slow. Perhaps we need something faster such as what Solace has.
- SVT (Solace Virtual Tape) files are a representation of a cassette,
usually holding about 4 games, just like a multifile tape. This format
is partially supported.
- HEX files appear to be the standard Intel format, and can be loaded
by Solace.
- The remaining formats (OPN, PL, PRN, SMU, SOL, ASM and LIB) appear
at first glance to be more specialised, and probably not worth being

System Setup (to play games etc).
- In the Dipswitches (not the Configuration), turn cursor flashing OFF.
- Loading via wav files works, so load a tape image in the file manager
- In UPPER CASE, enter XE press enter, cassette will load.
- At the end, the program will start by itself.
- When it says use 2,4,6,8 keys, you can use the keyboard arrow keys.

Monitor Commands:
- TE - ?
- DU - dump memory
- EN - modify memory
- EX - Go (execute)
- CU - ?
- SE - Set parameters (eg tape speed)
- SA - Save
- GE - Load
- XE - Load and run
- CA - List the files on a tape



This is disk-enabled, allowing CP/M to run.
To initialise the disk system, you must enter
after the computer has booted. It is not particularly
stable, so be prepared to cold boot whenever something
goes wrong.


Monitor commands
Dxxxx,yyyy = Dump memory
Fxxxx,yyyy,zz = Fill memory
Gxxxx = Goto
Ixx = In port
Lxxxx = Load
Mxxxx,yyyy,zzzz = Move x-y to z
Oxx,yy = Out port
- = Edit memory
. = Edit memory


SWTPC 6800

bios 0 (SWTBUG) is made for a PIA (parallel) interface.
bios 1 (MIKBUG) is made for a ACIA (serial) interface at the same address.
MIKBUG will actually read the bits as they arrive and assemble a byte.

Note: All commands must be in uppercase. See the SWTBUG manual.

B Breakpoint
C Clear screen
D Disk boot
E End of tape
F Find a byte
G Goto
J Jump
L Ascii Load
M Memory change (enter to quit, - to display next byte)
O Optional Port
P Ascii Punch
R Register dump
Z Goto Prom (0xC000)



Emulates four different fixed combinations of hardware
1. swtpc09
Will boot Flex operating system
2. swtpc09i
Will boot Flex operating system
3. swtpc09u
Will boot UniFlex operating system
4. swtpc09d3
Will boot UniFlex operating system


Tavernier CPU09 and IVG09 (Realisez votre ordinateur individuel)

CPU09 includes 6809, 6821, 6840, 6850, cassette, rs232
IVG09 includes 6845, another 6821, beeper
IFD09 includes WD1795

List of commands (must be in UPPERCASE):
A -
B -
C -
D - Dump memory (^X to break)
G -
I -
L - Load cassette
M -
N -
O -
P - Save cassette
Q -
R - Display/Alter Registers
S -
T -
U -
V -
W -
X - 'erreur de chargement dos'
Y -
Z - more scan lines per row (cursor is bigger)



The TEC-1 was a single-board "computer" described in Talking Electronics
magazine, issues number 10 and 11. Talking Electronics do not have dates on
their issues, so the date is uncertain, although 1984 seems a reasonable
guess. Talking Electronics operated from Cheltenham, a suburb of Melbourne.

The hardware is quite simple, consisting of a Z80 cpu, 2x 8212 8-bit latch,
74C923 keyboard scanner, 20 push-button keys, 6-digit LED display, a speaker,
a 2k EPROM and sundry parts.

The cpu speed could be adjusted by using a potentiometer, the range being
250 kHz to 2MHz. This is a simple method of adjusting a game's difficulty.

0-F : as is
+ (inc) : ^
- (dec) : V
AD : -
GO : X

0 to 9, A to F are on the key of the same name.
AD (input an address) is the '-' key.
+ and - (increment / decrement address) are the up and down-arrow keys.
GO (execute program at current address) is the X key.
SHIFT - later monitor versions utilised an extra shift button. Hold
it down and press another key (use Left Shift).

Whenever a program listing mentions RESET, do a Soft Reset.

Each key causes a beep to be heard. You may need to press more than once
to get it to register.

Inbuilt games - press the following sequence of keys:
- Welcome: RESET D 1 + 0 2 AD 0 2 7 0 GO GO (Paste: D1^02 -0270XX)
- Nim: RESET AD 3 E 0 GO GO (Paste: -3E0XX)
- Invaders: RESET AD 3 2 0 GO GO (Paste: -320XX)
- Luna Lander: RESET AD 4 9 0 GO GO (Paste: -490XX)

Differences between tec1 and tecjmon:

On the tec1 a keypress is indicated by an NMI from the 74C923; but on
the jmon it sets bit 6 of port 3 low instead. The NMI code is simply
a 'retn' in the jmon rom, so we can use the same code.
The jmon includes a cassette interface, a serial input connection,
and an optional LCD, but the games of the tec1 have been removed.



TK80 (Training Kit 80) considered to be Japan's first home computer.
It consisted of 25 keys and 8 LED digits, and was programmed in hex.
The Mikrolab is a Russian clone which appears to be almost completely identical.

TK85 seems to be the same as TK80, except is has a larger ROM. No
schematics etc are available. It has 25 keys, so a few aren't defined yet.

ND-80Z : (newer version)
Like the TK85, it has a 2KB rom.

When booted, the system begins at 0000 which is ROM. You need to change the
address to 8000 before entering a program. Here is a test to paste in:
Press the right-arrow to confirm data has been entered.

4 digits at left is the address; 2 digits at right is the data.
As you increment addresses, the middle 2 digits show the previous byte.
You can enter 4 digits, and pressing 'ADRS SET' will transfer this info
to the left, thus setting the address to this value. Press 'WRITE INCR' to
store new data and increment the address. Press 'READ INCR' and 'READ DECR'
to scan through data without updating it. Other keys unknown/not implemented.

- Keys labels are correct, but which key is which is not known
- Character B is corrupt
- Operation is different to the other systems


tm990/189 ("University Module")

The tm990/189 is a simple board built around a tms9980 at 2.0 MHz.
The board features:
* a calculator-like alphanumeric keyboard, a 10-digit 8-segment display,
a sound buzzer and 4 status LEDs
* a 4kb ROM socket (0x3000-0x3fff), and a 2kb ROM socket (0x0800-0x0fff)
* 1kb of RAM expandable to 2kb (0x0000-0x03ff and 0x0400-0x07ff)
* a tms9901 controlling a custom parallel I/O port (available for
* an optional on-board serial interface (either TTY or RS232): TI ROMs
support a terminal connected to this port
* an optional tape interface
* an optional bus extension port for adding additional custom devices (TI
sold a video controller expansion built around a tms9918, which was
supported by University Basic)

One tms9901 is set up so that it handles tms9980 interrupts. The other
tms9901, the tms9902, and extension cards can trigger interrupts on the
interrupt-handling tms9901.

TI sold two ROM sets for this machine: a monitor and assembler ("UNIBUG",
packaged as one 4kb EPROM) and a Basic interpreter ("University BASIC",
packaged as a 4kb and a 2kb EPROM). Users could burn and install custom
ROM sets, too.

This board was sold to universities to learn either assembly language or
BASIC programming.

A few hobbyists may have bought one of these, too. This board can actually
be used as a development kit for the tms9980, but it was not supported as
such (there was no EPROM programmer or mass storage system for the
tm990/189, though you could definitively design your own and attach them to
the extension port).

Bug - The input buffer of character segments isn't fully cleared. If you
press Shift, then Z enough times, garbage appears. This is because
the boot process should have set 18C-1CB to FF, but only sets up to 1B3.

Demo programs for the 990189v: You can get impressive colour displays (with
sprites) from the 4 included demos. Press the Enter key after each instruction,
and wait for the READY prompt before proceeding to the next.

LOADx (where x = 0,1,2,3)

University BASIC fully supports the tms9918 videocard option. For example, enter
COLOR x (where x = 1 to 15), to get a coloured background.


argo, unior


The monitor will only allow certain characters to be typed, thus the
modifier keys appear to do nothing. There is no need to use the enter
key; using spacebar and the correct parameters is enough.

If you press Shift, indicators for numlock and capslock will appear.

Monitor commands for UNIOR and ARGO:
D - hex dump
E - save
H - set register
I - load
J - modify memory
L - list registers


Elektor TV Games Computer
This is much the same as the vc4000, however it has its own ROM (with inbuilt
monitor program similar to the Signetics Instructor 50), and 2K of ram. No cart
slot, no joystick, but has a cassette interface.

When booted you get the familiar 00 00 pattern. Pressing Q gives a display of
IIII. Now, you enter a command.

Key Command Purpose
Q Start Boot up system
L RCAS Load a tape
S WCAS Save a tape
W BP1/2 Set a breakpoint
R REG View/Set registers
+pad + Enter data and do next thing
-pad - Decrement
- MEM Specify an address
0-9 0-9 Hex digits
A-F A-F Hex digits

Keyboard layout when using the Monitor on real hardware (n/a = key not assigned)

Start BP1/2 REG 8 9 A B
n/a PC MEM 4 5 6 7
Reset - + 0 1 2 3

This wouldn't fit too well on our keyboard with any chance of remembering
it, so I've hooked it much the same as the Instructor.

The Select key (Z) and the joystick don't actually exist, but I've left them
in the keyboard matrix for now.

You can load pgm and tvc files with the quickload facility. The quickloads
are meant for the ElektorTVGC, however with a bit a trickery they can be made
to work on the vc4000 as well. Procedure:

- Get a copy of the Elektor bios and rename it to ELEKTOR.BIN then save it
with the rest of your vc4000 carts.

- Start vc4000, and load ELEKTOR.BIN into the cartslot. Now your vc4000
thinks it is an Elektor.

- Load a quickload file. Some of them will work, and in some cases, better
than on the Elektor system.

This system uses the standard trainer paste codes:
0-F : as is
+ : ^
- : V
MEM : -

Here's a sample from the manual, page 34/35 (down-arrow to escape)

Another sample, from page 94 (Q to escape)



0-F : as is
A+ : ^
A- : V
MA : -
GO : X

When booted, the system begins at 0000 which is ROM. You need to change the
address to 0400 before entering a program. Here is a test to paste in:
Press the up-arrow to confirm data has been entered.

4 digits at left is the address; 2 digits at right is the data.
As you increment addresses, the middle 2 digits show the previous byte.
You can enter 4 digits, and pressing 'MA' will transfer this info
to the left, thus setting the address to this value. Press 'A+' to
store new data and increment the address.


Z80 dev board (unknown)

0-F : as is
MEM (inc) : ^
MEM (dec) : V
GO : X
To set an address, paste R0 address, so R01040 to select 1040

Example paste: R01040^11^22^33^44^55^66^77^88^99^^R01040^
Press the up-arrow key to confirm data has been entered.


Zenith Z-100

Press H to list all the commands.



The 8x4 keyboard contains letters A-W, enter, cursor right/left, space, and
4 shift keys.
S1 - X-Z, numbers
S2 - a-w
S3 - x-z, punctuation
S4 - control keys

Control Keys:
G - Graphics
A - Alpha
T - clear screen
U - enter
P - cursor left
Q - cursor right

Monitor commands (debug)
R - registers
B - breakpoint
E - execute
G - resume after breakpoint
N - single-step

Monitor commands (general)
H - switch to hex keyboard (H to Q become 0 to 9)
A - switch back to normal alpha keyboard
C - Compare memory blocks
D - Dump memory
F - Find bytes in memory
T - Copy memory block
M - Modify bytes (; to exit)
I - reboot
J - Jump to address
K - Fill memory (K by itself fills all of memory)
L - Load Cassette
S - Save Cassette
W - window (example: W EF00 EFFF)

Due to no input checking, misuse of commands can crash the system.


Robotron Z9001 (KC85/1)

The only kind of acceptable input is a filename that is in 8.3 format and
begins with a letter. It will say 'start tape'. You can press ^C here to
escape, or any key to continue.

Some other control keys:
^B clear input line
^C break
^F toggle flashing attribute
^H backspace
^L clear screen



Make sure 'mode' dipswitch is set to 'local' so you can see your typing.


Digital Microsystems ZSBC-3

Monitor commands: [] indicates optional

Bx = Boot from device x (0 to 7)
Dx [y] = Dump memory (hex and ascii) in range x [to y]
Fx y z = Fill memory x to y with z
Gx = Execute program at address x
Ix = Display IN of port x
Ox y = Output y to port x
Sx = Enter memory editing mode, press enter for next address
Mx y = unknown (affects memory)
Tx = unknown (does strange things)
enter = dump memory from 9000 to 907F (why?)


Reged: 08/21/04
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Re: MESS-based things for Gameinit.dat new [Re: AntoPISA]
#352386 - 04/03/16 02:04 PM

> Very interesting! Paste as well...

OK all done, good luck with it. The systems are delimited by a $ line.

MAME Snapper
Reged: 09/15/08
Posts: 2652
Loc: Pisa, Italy
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Re: MESS-based things for Gameinit.dat new [Re: Robbbert]
#352387 - 04/03/16 02:22 PM

Wow! So much stuff!
I will try to add this in the 0.172 update of gameinit.

PS: MESSUI coming on my page, thanks

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MAME Snapper
Reged: 09/15/08
Posts: 2652
Loc: Pisa, Italy
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Re: MESS-based things for Gameinit.dat new [Re: Robbbert]
#352404 - 04/03/16 09:35 PM

Better reading all the informations, it seems that they are more suitable for sysinfo.dat (which I'm updating silent ).

Do you mind if I use them for this purpose?

Board: progetto-SNAPS Official Board
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Reged: 08/21/04
Posts: 2912
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Re: MESS-based things for Gameinit.dat new [Re: AntoPISA]
#352415 - 04/03/16 11:34 PM

> Better reading all the informations, it seems that they are more suitable for
> sysinfo.dat (which I'm updating silent ).
> Do you mind if I use them for this purpose?

Go ahead. The info is yours to do with as you please.

Let me know when you're done, so that I can delete the pages off my site. Thx!

Edited by Robbbert (04/04/16 02:06 AM)

Reged: 08/21/04
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Re: MESS-based things for Gameinit.dat new [Re: Robbbert]
#356594 - 07/17/16 01:02 PM

> > Better reading all the informations, it seems that they are more suitable for
> > sysinfo.dat (which I'm updating silent ).
> >
> > Do you mind if I use them for this purpose?
> Go ahead. The info is yours to do with as you please.
> Let me know when you're done, so that I can delete the pages off my site. Thx!

The information has now been deleted from my site.

MAME Snapper
Reged: 09/15/08
Posts: 2652
Loc: Pisa, Italy
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Re: MESS-based things for Gameinit.dat new [Re: Robbbert]
#356635 - 07/18/16 06:29 PM


The information has now been deleted from my site.

All information I stored on an offline file, ready to be added to sysinfo.dat.

Thanks for everything.

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